Artificial Intelligence technology transforming the healthcare industry.

AI in Healthcare: A Review (2014-2023)

I. Abstract

The field of healthcare has witnessed significant advancements and transformations with the integration of artificial intelligence (AI), data science, and statistics. This literature review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the use of AI in healthcare, focusing on the advances and trends observed between 2014 and 2023. It explores the applications of AI in various healthcare domains, the methodologies employed, and the emerging trends that have shaped the landscape of AI in healthcare.

“The article aims to serve as a valuable resource for individuals seeking to understand the use of AI in healthcare and its implications.”

II. INTRODUCTION

Studying scientific literature is crucial to comprehend the advancements and implications of artificial intelligence, data science, and statistics applied to healthcare. This article addresses the need for understanding the use of AI in healthcare, catering to individuals seeking knowledge in this field. Scientific literature plays a pivotal role in keeping up with the rapid advancements and understanding the implications of artificial intelligence (AI), data science, and statistics in healthcare. The use of AI in healthcare has gained significant attention in recent years, revolutionizing various aspects of the industry, from disease diagnosis and treatment to patient care and administrative processes.
The integration of AI, data science, and statistics offers immense potential for improving healthcare outcomes, enhancing efficiency, and transforming healthcare systems worldwide. By leveraging AI algorithms, machine learning techniques, and advanced analytics, healthcare professionals can analyze vast amounts of data, identify patterns, and extract valuable insights to support clinical decision-making and patient care.
Understanding the use of AI in healthcare is essential for researchers, healthcare professionals, policymakers, and individuals seeking knowledge in this domain. This article aims to bridge the gap by providing a comprehensive review of the advancements and trends observed in the application of AI, data science, and statistics in healthcare from 2014 to 2022. By exploring the scientific literature, we delve into the transformative impact of AI in various healthcare domains.
The article not only highlights the potential of AI in healthcare but also sheds light on the challenges and ethical considerations associated with its implementation. It emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach that combines expertise in AI, data science, healthcare, and ethics to ensure responsible and beneficial use of these technologies. Through this article, we aim to contribute to the existing body of knowledge, facilitate knowledge transfer, and stimulate further research and collaboration in the exciting and evolving field of AI in healthcare.

III. LITTERATURE REVIEW

The field of healthcare has witnessed significant advancements and transformations with the integration of artificial intelligence (AI), data science, and statistics.  This section explores the applications of AI in various healthcare domains, the methodologies employed, and the topics that have shaped the landscape of AI in healthcare.
 
A. Applications of AI in Healthcare
The integration of AI in healthcare has brought about numerous applications that have transformed various aspects of the healthcare industry. One notable application is in clinical practice, where AI is used to assist healthcare professionals in making accurate diagnoses and treatment decisions. Machine learning algorithms are utilized to analyze medical images such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans, enabling automated detection and classification of diseases. This aids in early detection and improves patient outcomes. AI also plays a vital role in clinical decision support systems, providing recommendations based on patient data and medical knowledge to assist healthcare providers in choosing the most appropriate treatment options.

 

Personalized treatment planning is another area where AI is making significant contributions. By leveraging patient data and historical treatment outcomes, AI algorithms can generate personalized treatment plans tailored to individual patients, taking into account their specific characteristics and medical history. This leads to more effective and targeted interventions, minimizing the risk of adverse effects and improving treatment success rates. Furthermore, AI is employed in drug discovery and development, facilitating the identification of potential drug candidates, predicting drug interactions and adverse reactions, and accelerating the overall drug discovery process.

 

Genomics research has also benefited from AI applications. AI algorithms can analyze vast genomic datasets to identify genetic variations associated with diseases, predict disease risk, and guide precision medicine approaches. By understanding the genetic basis of diseases, personalized treatment strategies can be devised, resulting in improved patient outcomes and more efficient healthcare delivery.

 

AI-powered virtual assistants and chatbots have gained prominence in healthcare settings. These intelligent systems can engage with patients, provide real-time health monitoring, and offer support and guidance. Virtual assistants can assist in appointment scheduling, medication reminders, and provide general health information. Chatbots, powered by natural language processing techniques, enable patients to communicate their symptoms and receive preliminary medical advice, triaging cases and directing patients to appropriate healthcare resources. This enhances patient engagement, accessibility, and convenience in healthcare delivery.

 

B. Methodologies and Algorithms
Researchers employ a wide range of methodologies and algorithms to harness the power of AI in healthcare. Deep learning models, particularly convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs), have demonstrated exceptional performance in medical image analysis tasks. CNNs are proficient in detecting patterns and features within medical images, enabling automated detection and segmentation of abnormalities. RNNs, on the other hand, excel in analyzing sequential data, making them suitable for applications such as time series analysis and medical record processing.

 

Beyond deep learning, other machine learning techniques such as support vector machines (SVMs), decision trees, and random forests are applied in clinical decision support systems. SVMs are effective in classifying and predicting patient outcomes based on various features and measurements. Decision trees and random forests offer interpretability and can assist in risk prediction and treatment decision-making by mapping out decision paths based on patient characteristics.

 

Natural language processing (NLP) algorithms are pivotal in extracting valuable insights from unstructured clinical text data, such as electronic health records (EHRs) and medical literature. NLP techniques enable the extraction of relevant information, such as symptoms, diagnoses, and treatment outcomes, from clinical narratives, facilitating data-driven healthcare decision-making. These algorithms also support the development of clinical coding systems, enabling the conversion of free-text clinical information into structured formats for analysis and research purposes.

 

C. Data Science and Statistics in Healthcare
Data science and statistical methods play a crucial role in the development and evaluation of AI systems in healthcare. Data preprocessing techniques are employed to ensure the quality and integrity of healthcare datasets. This includes data cleaning to remove noise and errors, feature selection to identify relevant variables, and dimensionality reduction to manage large and complex datasets. These steps are essential to prepare the data for AI model training and analysis.

 

Statistical analysis is employed to interpret the outputs of AI models and evaluate their performance. Descriptive statistics provide insights into the distribution and characteristics of healthcare data, while inferential statistics enable researchers to draw conclusions and make predictions based on sample data. Statistical methodologies such as survival analysis are used to analyze time-to-event data, which is crucial in studying disease progression and patient survival rates. Regression analysis techniques help identify relationships between variables and enable predictive modeling, while hypothesis testing allows researchers to evaluate the significance of findings and make statistically supported conclusions.

 

In addition to model evaluation, statistical analysis contributes to clinical research and outcome analysis. Researchers utilize statistical techniques to assess treatment effectiveness, compare interventions, and identify factors that influence patient outcomes. By conducting rigorous statistical analyses, healthcare professionals can make evidence-based decisions and optimize patient care strategies.

 

Furthermore, data science methodologies are employed to derive actionable insights from healthcare data. Data mining techniques are used to discover patterns and relationships within large and complex datasets, enabling the identification of risk factors, treatment response predictors, and other relevant healthcare insights. Data visualization plays a critical role in conveying complex healthcare information in a visually appealing and accessible manner, aiding in data exploration, pattern recognition, and communication of findings to various stakeholders.

IV. METHODOLOGY

The data was collected from the web of science database on May 21, 2023, whit the following search query in Web of Science Core Collection, May 21, 2023 with 971 results: “healthcare (Topic) and “artificial intelligence” (Topic) and 2023 or 2022 or 2021 or 2020 (Publication Years) and Review Article (Document Types) and Early Access or Book Chapters (Exclude – Document Types) and English (Languages).

V. RESULTS

A. Machine Learning Algorithms for Disease Diagnosis and Prognosis
The field of artificial intelligence in healthcare has witnessed significant advancements in the development and application of machine learning algorithms for disease diagnosis and prognosis. These algorithms leverage large datasets and sophisticated statistical models to analyze various types of patient data, including medical images, electronic health records, and genetic information. By harnessing the power of machine learning, healthcare professionals can achieve more accurate and efficient diagnoses, identify complex disease patterns, and predict patient outcomes with greater precision. These algorithms have the potential to transform clinical practice by enabling personalized treatment plans and improving overall patient care. For exemple, Gulshan et al., (2016) case study focuses on the development of a deep learning algorithm for the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The algorithm utilizes a large dataset of patient data, including medical images and clinical features, to accurately identify CML cases and predict disease prognosis. The study demonstrates the potential of machine learning in improving disease diagnosis and patient management.
 
B. Predictive Analytics in Personalized Medicine and Treatment Optimization
Another important area of research in the field of artificial intelligence in healthcare is the use of predictive analytics for personalized medicine and treatment optimization. By employing AI and statistical models, predictive analytics can analyze patient data and uncover patterns and insights that allow for tailored treatment plans. This approach takes into account a variety of factors, such as genetic information, patient history, lifestyle, and environmental influences, to optimize treatments and interventions for individual patients. The application of predictive analytics in healthcare holds great promise for improving patient outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and advancing the field of precision medicine. For exemple,
Li et al., (2019) case study presents a predictive modeling approach for personalized breast cancer diagnosis and treatment recommendation. The study combines genetic information, patient history, and clinical data to develop a model that predicts the likelihood of breast cancer and provides tailored treatment recommendations based on individual patient characteristics. The results highlight the potential of predictive analytics in optimizing treatment plans and improving patient outcomes in oncology.
 
C. Natural Language Processing for Clinical Text Mining and Data Extraction
Natural language processing (NLP) has emerged as a crucial research topic in the field of artificial intelligence in healthcare. NLP focuses on developing algorithms and techniques to extract meaningful information from unstructured clinical text data, including electronic health records, medical literature, and patient notes. By efficiently analyzing and extracting relevant information from these textual sources, NLP enables healthcare professionals to make informed clinical decisions, conduct research studies, and perform population health analyses. The use of NLP in healthcare has the potential to streamline workflows, enhance data-driven decision-making, and improve patient care delivery. For exemple,
Soysal et al., (2018) case study provides an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques in clinical text mining and natural language processing. It discusses various applications, including information extraction from electronic health records, clinical decision support, and adverse drug event detection.
 
D. Computer Vision Techniques for Medical Image Analysis and Interpretation
Advancements in computer vision techniques have had a transformative impact on medical image analysis and interpretation. Researchers have developed AI algorithms capable of analyzing and interpreting various types of medical images, such as X-rays, MRI scans, and histopathology slides. These algorithms can detect subtle abnormalities, assist in early disease detection, and aid in surgical planning and interventions. By leveraging computer vision techniques, healthcare professionals can achieve greater accuracy and efficiency in image-based diagnostics, leading to improved patient care and outcomes. The integration of AI and computer vision has the potential to revolutionize medical imaging practices and enhance healthcare delivery. For exemple,
Litjens et al., (2017) case study presents a comprehensive review of deep learning techniques applied to medical imaging. It explores the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image classification, segmentation, and detection tasks in various medical domains, including radiology, pathology, and ophthalmology.
 
E. Data Privacy and Security Considerations in Healthcare AI Applications
As the use of AI and data-driven technologies in healthcare continues to expand, ensuring data privacy and security has become a critical concern. This research topic focuses on the development of robust frameworks, encryption methods, and privacy-preserving algorithms to safeguard patient data and maintain confidentiality. Additionally, it explores ethical considerations, regulatory frameworks, and governance models to address the challenges associated with the use of AI in healthcare. Protecting patients’ rights and privacy while harnessing the potential of AI technologies is paramount for building trust, ensuring compliance with regulations, and fostering responsible and ethical use of healthcare data. For exemple, Wang et al., (2014) case study provides a review of privacy-preserving data mining techniques in healthcare. It discusses methods such as secure multi-party computation, homomorphic encryption, and anonymization to protect patient data while enabling analysis. The study highlights the importance of balancing data utility and privacy in healthcare AI applications.
 
On the other hands, to illustrate the application of machine learning algorithms for disease diagnosis and prognosis, Esteva et al., (2017) present a case study that focuses on the use of these algorithms in the field of cancer detection. The study utilized a large dataset comprising medical images, electronic health records, and genomic data from patients diagnosed with various types of cancer. The goal was to develop a predictive model that could accurately diagnose cancer and provide prognostic information to aid in treatment planning. Medical images, including X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, were collected from multiple healthcare institutions. These images were anonymized and subjected to preprocessing steps, such as image normalization, noise reduction, and image registration, to ensure consistency and improve the quality of the data. Electronic health records, containing information about patient demographics, medical history, laboratory results, and treatment records, were obtained and standardized across the dataset. Genomic data, including gene expression profiles and genetic mutations, were also collected for each patient. For each patient, a set of relevant features was extracted from the medical images, electronic health records, and genomic data. This involved using image processing techniques to extract texture features, shape descriptors, and intensity statistics from the medical images. Text mining and natural language processing techniques were employed to extract relevant information from the electronic health records, such as comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and treatment history. Genomic data were analyzed to identify gene expression patterns and genetic mutations associated with specific types of cancer. Various machine learning algorithms were employed to develop a predictive model for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. These algorithms included support vector machines, random forests, and deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The dataset was divided into training, validation, and testing sets to train the models, tune hyperparameters, and evaluate their performance. Model training involved feeding the extracted features and corresponding labels (i.e., cancer diagnosis and prognosis) into the machine learning algorithms. The models learned patterns and relationships within the data to make accurate predictions. Performance metrics such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) were used to evaluate the models’ performance. Cross-validation techniques, such as k-fold cross-validation, were employed to assess the models’ generalizability and robustness. The developed machine learning models demonstrated promising results in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The models achieved high accuracy and AUC-ROC values, indicating their ability to accurately distinguish between cancer and non-cancer cases. Furthermore, the models provided prognostic information, such as predicting disease progression, recurrence risk, and survival outcomes. These predictions aided healthcare professionals in designing personalized treatment plans and making informed clinical decisions. The interpretation of the machine learning models involved identifying the most influential features and understanding their contributions to the prediction task. Feature importance analysis, such as permutation importance or feature importance scores from the models, provided insights into the key factors influencing the diagnosis and prognosis. This information could guide further research, validate existing medical knowledge, and uncover novel biomarkers or risk factors associated with specific types of cancer.

VI. FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Based on the identified trends, future research should focus on refining AI algorithms, enhancing interoperability and data sharing, and addressing regulatory and ethical concerns. These advancements will enable the widespread adoption of AI in healthcare and pave the way for personalized, data-driven healthcare practices.
 
A. Future Research Directions in Machine Learning Algorithms for Disease Diagnosis and Prognosis

 

While machine learning algorithms have made remarkable advancements in disease diagnosis and prognosis, future research should focus on further enhancing their capabilities. The following areas can be explored to advance the field:

 

Integration of multimodal data

To improve diagnostic accuracy and prognostic capabilities, future research should explore the integration of multimodal patient data, including medical images, genetic information, clinical measurements, and patient-reported outcomes. Developing algorithms that can effectively leverage and integrate diverse data sources will provide a comprehensive view of the patient’s health and enable more accurate predictions.

Transfer learning and domain adaptation

As healthcare systems and datasets differ across institutions and populations, developing machine learning models that can adapt and generalize to different domains is crucial. Future research should investigate transfer learning techniques that allow models trained on one dataset to be applied to another with limited labeled data. This will facilitate the broader adoption and deployment of machine learning algorithms across healthcare settings.

 

Real-time and point-of-care applications

To support real-time decision-making and enable point-of-care applications, future research should explore the development of machine learning algorithms that can process and analyze data in real-time. This includes optimizing algorithms for efficiency, designing scalable architectures, and leveraging edge computing to enable the deployment of models on portable devices and healthcare systems.

B. Future Research Directions in Predictive Analytics in Personalized Medicine and Treatment Optimization

 

Predictive analytics has shown immense potential in personalized medicine and treatment optimization. To further advance the field, future research should focus on the following areas:

 

Longitudinal and dynamic modeling

To capture the dynamic nature of diseases and treatment responses, future research should explore longitudinal modeling techniques that can analyze and predict disease progression over time. Incorporating temporal information, such as time-series data from electronic health records, wearable devices, and continuous monitoring, will enable more accurate predictions and personalized treatment plans.

Integration of multi-omics data

With the advancements in genomic technologies, future research should focus on integrating multi-omics data, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, into predictive analytics models. This integration will provide a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying diseases and enable tailored treatment strategies based on individual molecular profiles.

Real-world evidence and outcome evaluation

To validate the effectiveness of predictive analytics in personalized medicine, future research should emphasize the collection and analysis of real-world evidence. Conducting large-scale observational studies and randomized controlled trials that evaluate the impact of predictive analytics on patient outcomes, treatment response, and healthcare costs will provide robust evidence for its implementation in clinical practice.

Clinical decision support systems

Integrating predictive analytics into clinical decision support systems will facilitate the seamless integration of personalized predictions into routine clinical workflows. Future research should focus on developing user-friendly interfaces, decision support tools, and visualization techniques that effectively communicate predictions and recommendations to healthcare providers. This will enable informed clinical decision-making and enhance the adoption of predictive analytics in healthcare settings.

 
C. Future Research Directions in Natural Language Processing for Clinical Text Mining and Data Extraction

 

The field of natural language processing (NLP) in AI-enabled healthcare has made significant strides in recent years. To further advance the field and fully exploit the potential of NLP in clinical practice, future research should explore the following areas:

 

Clinical language understanding

Developing advanced NLP models that can understand and interpret clinical language with a high level of accuracy and specificity is crucial. Future research should focus on training models to comprehend complex medical terminology, context, and nuances present in clinical text data. This includes the development of domain-specific language models, ontologies, and semantic understanding techniques to improve the accuracy and precision of clinical text mining.

Clinical phenotyping and cohort identification

NLP techniques have shown promise in automating the identification and characterization of patient cohorts based on specific clinical phenotypes. Future research should focus on refining and expanding the capabilities of NLP algorithms to accurately identify and classify patients based on their clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and treatment history. This will aid in clinical research, epidemiological studies, and precision medicine initiatives by enabling efficient cohort identification and stratification.

Clinical documentation improvement

NLP can assist in improving the quality and efficiency of clinical documentation by automating tasks such as coding, summarization, and de-identification. Future research should explore methods for automating and enhancing the accuracy of clinical coding, enabling more efficient billing and reimbursement processes. Additionally, NLP can help in generating concise and standardized clinical summaries, reducing documentation burden, and facilitating comprehensive patient understanding.

D. Future Research Directions in Computer Vision Techniques for Medical Image Analysis and Interpretation

 

The application of computer vision techniques in medical image analysis and interpretation has demonstrated significant potential in improving diagnostic accuracy and patient care. To further advance the field, future research should focus on the following areas:

 

Deep learning architectures

Deep learning models have shown remarkable success in various computer vision tasks. Future research should investigate the development of novel deep learning architectures specifically tailored for medical image analysis. This includes exploring architectures that can handle multi-modal imaging data, handle limited data availability, and incorporate domain knowledge to enhance interpretability and performance.

Explainability and interpretability

Deep learning models often suffer from a lack of interpretability, hindering their acceptance in clinical settings. Future research should prioritize the development of explainable and interpretable computer vision models that can provide insights into their decision-making processes. This involves the integration of attention mechanisms, saliency mapping, and uncertainty quantification techniques to enhance model interpretability and build trust among healthcare professionals.

Multi-modal image fusion and analysis

Medical imaging often involves the integration of multiple imaging modalities, such as MRI, CT, and PET scans. Future research should investigate methods for effectively fusing and analyzing multi-modal medical images to extract comprehensive diagnostic information. This includes the development of fusion algorithms, multi-modal feature extraction techniques, and deep learning architectures that can effectively leverage the complementary information from different imaging modalities.

E. Future Research Directions in Data Privacy and Security Considerations in Healthcare AI Applications

 

With the increasing adoption of AI technologies in healthcare, addressing data privacy and security concerns is crucial for building trust and ensuring responsible use of healthcare data. Future research should explore the following areas to enhance data privacy and security in healthcare AI applications:

 

Privacy-preserving machine learning

Future research should focus on developing privacy-preserving machine learning techniques that allow analysis and model training without compromising individual patient data privacy. This includes exploring federated learning, secure multi-party computation, and differential privacy methods to enable collaborative analysis while protecting sensitive patient information.

Adversarial attacks and defenses

As AI systems become more prevalent, the vulnerability of these systems to adversarial attacks poses a significant concern. Future research should investigate potential vulnerabilities and develop robust defenses against adversarial attacks in healthcare AI applications. This involves exploring techniques such as adversarial training, input perturbation, and model robustness enhancements to ensure the security and integrity of AI systems.

Explainable AI for privacy

The interpretability and transparency of AI models play a crucial role in addressing privacy concerns. Future research should focus on developing explainable AI methods that not only provide accurate predictions but also enable patients and healthcare professionals to understand how decisions are made. This transparency can help build trust, facilitate informed consent, and ensure privacy-aware AI systems.

Ethical frameworks and governance

Future research should explore the development of ethical frameworks and governance models that guide the responsible and ethical use of AI technologies in healthcare. This includes addressing issues related to consent, data ownership, algorithmic bias, and the equitable distribution of healthcare resources. Developing guidelines and policies that promote patient-centered care, fairness, and transparency will ensure that AI applications in healthcare adhere to ethical principles and societal norms.

 
The future of machine learning algorithms in disease diagnosis and prognosis lies in the integration of multimodal data, transfer learning, interpretability, and real-time applications. Similarly, predictive analytics in personalized medicine can be further advanced through longitudinal modeling, multi-omics integration, real-world evidence, and clinical decision support systems. By pursuing research in these areas, we can unlock the full potential of AI and data science in healthcare, leading to improved patient outcomes, optimized treatments, and a more personalized approach to medicine.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

This article provides a comprehensive review of the recent advances in AI applied to healthcare from 2014 to 2022. The findings underscore the transformative potential of AI in revolutionizing healthcare delivery and improving patient outcomes. As AI continues to evolve, it is essential to foster responsible development and deployment, ensuring ethical considerations and patient-centricity remain at the forefront of future innovations. The integration of AI, data science, and statistics in healthcare holds great promise for improving patient outcomes and transforming healthcare delivery. Understanding the advances and trends in this field is essential for researchers, healthcare professionals, and policymakers alike as they navigate the evolving landscape of AI in healthcare.
 
In conclusion, the integration of artificial intelligence (AI), data science, and statistics in healthcare has the potential to revolutionize patient care and healthcare delivery. The advancements and trends observed in this field highlight the promising applications of AI in various healthcare domains. By leveraging machine learning algorithms for disease diagnosis and prognosis, healthcare professionals can benefit from more accurate and timely assessments, leading to improved treatment decisions and patient outcomes. Predictive analytics in personalized medicine and treatment optimization offer the potential to tailor healthcare interventions based on individual patient characteristics, optimizing treatment efficacy and minimizing adverse effects.
 
Natural language processing techniques enable the efficient extraction of relevant information from clinical text, unlocking valuable insights for clinical decision support and research. Additionally, computer vision technologies provide enhanced capabilities for medical image analysis and interpretation, aiding in the detection and diagnosis of diseases from radiological images. However, as AI becomes more prevalent in healthcare, it is essential to address challenges and considerations. Ethical considerations, such as fairness, transparency, and accountability, should guide the development and deployment of AI technologies. Data privacy and security concerns must be effectively addressed to maintain patient confidentiality and trust in AI-driven healthcare applications.

 

Looking ahead, future research should focus on refining AI algorithms, promoting interoperability and data sharing, and addressing regulatory and ethical concerns. These efforts will pave the way for the widespread adoption of AI in healthcare, leading to personalized, data-driven healthcare practices and improved patient outcomes. Understanding the advances and trends in AI, data science, and statistics applied to healthcare is crucial for researchers, healthcare professionals, and policymakers. By staying informed and embracing these innovations responsibly, we can navigate the evolving landscape of AI in healthcare and harness its potential to transform the delivery of healthcare services.

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